Different Types of Tattoo Machines
Behind the endless variety of tattoos are the skill of tattoo artists and the quality of their tools. Experienced tattoo artists with experience keep different types of tattoo machines that perform different purposes for their work. So let's get into the classification and function of modern tattoo machines.
Coil tattoo machines
This is the first device that mechanized the work of tattoo artists. It was developed from Thomas Edison's self-writing pen and patented in 1891 by Samuel O'Reilly.
The mechanism consists of several elements:
- Frame. This is the skeleton that holds the working elements. It is made of steel or non-ferrous alloys in different designs. Manufacturers try to make it strong, lightweight, and elegant at the same time. For example, FK Irons uses heavy-duty aluminum, so its machines weigh about 130g.
- Coils. This is a pair of electromagnets with a steel core. They drive the mechanism. Depending on the number of wraps - layers of wound copper wire - there are 8-, 10-, 12-, 14-, and 16-wraps coils. The number of turns increases the power of the electromagnet, but it also increases the weight of the machine. The 10- and 12-wraps machines are used for most tattoo sessions.
- Capacitor. This is an electronic element that eliminates sparks when an electrical circuit is closed or opened.
- Armature Bar. It is a magnetic element mounted on a spring. It performs the oscillating movements that make the machine work. It is ejected under the action of the electromagnetic field from the coils and is returned back by the force of the spring.
- Springs. There are 2 metal plates. One holds the armature bar inside the frame. The other, attached to the armature bar, is the contact.
- Contact Screw. This is a copper or silver screw. Together with a second spring, it creates a contact pair, whose clamping and unclamping movement gives the striker motion. The screw is used to regulate the needle depth and the frequency of piercing.
How the machine works and the quality of the tattoo are determined by the quality of each construction element.
Types of coil tattoo machines
There are the following types of coil tattoo guns:
- Liner. The liner's task is to inject the ink quickly so that it does not have time to flow out. Its frequency is 120-150 Hz. High speed gives clear fine lines and color separation. The liner weighs less, it has a rigid contact spring, the distance between spring and an armature bar is 4-5 mm. It cannot be used for coloring.
- Shader. It is used to fill large areas and to create shadows. Shader coils have more wraps, the contact spring is softer, and the speed is lower. The frequency is 60-100 Hz. The needle stays in the skin longer, the tattoo ink has time to spread in the skin tissue. The gap between the armature bar and spring is 9-10 mm. It is not possible to make an outline using this type of tattoo machine.
Features of coils
- Getting the task done faster
- Make the procedure less painful
- Practically versatile
- Less traumatic
- Difficult to set up
- Sensitive to voltage fluctuations
Rotary Tattoo Machines
The first rotary machines appeared in 2010 when technologies made it possible to create powerful tiny electric motors. The device is similar to the crank mechanism of a sewing machine. An eccentric is attached to the motor shaft. It converts the rotation of the rotor into the reciprocating motion of the needle.
Working parts of rotary tattoo machines:
- Frame. This is a supporting structure. It is made of aluminum alloys or durable hard polymers.
- Electric motor which is a power mechanism.
- The eccentric. It is a bearing with an offset armature bar.
- A design element that eliminates transverse needle movement. The eccentric makes longitudinal and transverse movements simultaneously. Manufacturers eliminate this in a variety of ways: strings, rubber bands, slide rails, spring-loaded lever, and a longitudinal element with a transverse groove. InkMachines installs an extra connecting rod in their Dragonfly, making the machines lighter.
Features of rotaries
- Higher efficiency
- Works quietly
- Works smoothly
- Adjustable speed
- The quality of the outlines may be lower because of the smooth movement of the needle; sometimes it is better to use a liner coil tattoo machine
- The lack of inertia of the needle stroke causes it to inject less tattoo ink under the skin
- If the machine is low-powered, it can be difficult to work with problem areas on the client's body (fat rolls, cellulite, flabbiness)
Rotary tattoo machines were considered the best exclusively for colorful tattoos and for permanent makeup until recent years. Truly tattoo artists still long preferred the old-school coil devices. Nevertheless, today's powerful and hard rotary guns are hugely popular and conquering the market.
Types of Rotary Tattoo Machines
Manufacturers produce different types of rotary tattoo machines, which differ in the way the reciprocating motion is transmitted:
Direct-drive. The force is transmitted directly to the needle or cartridge. The rotation of the motor keeps the needle in constant oscillation. To damp the horizontal oscillations, the needle rod is secured with rubber bands. They are highly dependent on the quality of the power supply: it takes time to accelerate and decelerate.
Slider. The rotary motion is transmitted through a transferring longitudinal element. Many Bishop tattoo machines and their armature bar have a clamping mechanism. It is less sensitive to the power level of the power supply.
Pen. It is an ergonomic pen machine. Pen tattoo machines are the latest modification of the rotary tattoo machine from Cheyenne. The German manufacturer was the first to introduce this format of the device. The design is created for disposable needles-modules, which are disposed of after use. Cheyenne has also developed needle cartridges that can be used in induction and rotary machines. The motor is mounted along the body. A more complex mechanism is used to transmit the longitudinal translational motion. It works only with cartridges. Pen-styled tattoo machines are expensive to maintain and repair. But the main features of it are the ease to use and lightweight. For example, the Vlad Blad lightweight short pen with grip weighs only 104g, and the wireless CNC pen – 175g.
- With a commutatorless motor. It uses a magnetic drive. The lightest InkJecta with a commutatorless motor machine weighs less than 50 g. Speed is from ultra-low rpm up to 15000 rpm. It is costly.
Are rotary tattoo machines better than coil?
Rotary machines are no better or worse than induction machines. Both types of machines have their advantages and disadvantages. The choice depends entirely on the individual requirements and feelings of the tattooist. A beginner should try both types of work and choose the one that is more comfortable.
Types of tattoo machine frames?
Tattoo machine frames are made of stainless or oxidized steel, bronze, aluminum alloys. Frames can be assembled or solid. Solid frames, in turn, can be one-piece or milled.
What are good tattoo machines?
Each tattoo artist has his own opinion on the matter. The choice depends on how the tattoo machine is used. Fine lines, clear outlines, fine patterns are best handled by the liner coil tattoo machine. But to achieve maximum efficiency, you need to be able to set it up manually. Moreover, the metal frame and coils are heavy; the tool weighs at least 140 grams. This is a significant load on the hand.
If you need to work with colored tattoos, tattoo artists prefer rotary tattoo machines. They weigh less, do not need fine-tuning, and have a wide range of applications. The devices are versatile, do not need adjustment and maintenance. Permanent makeup artists choose pen tattoo machines too.
What kind of tattoo guns do professionals use?
There are no one-size-fits-all machines. Professionals usually have several tools in their arsenal. For example, a classic pair of coil tattoo machines for lining and for shading. A generalist tattooist has one or two rotary ones to ink colored tattoos. The traveling tattooist may bring a lightweight pen tattoo machine, or even, a wireless, battery-powered one.
When choosing a tattoo machine the decisive moments are technical characteristics, equipment, individual sensations. Those who decided to devote themselves to the art of tattooing need to keep in mind both their comfort and the comfort of the client. These circumstances are strongly connected with each other.